DNA Genealogy and Linguistics. Ancient Europe
Anatole A. Klyosov1, Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli2
1 The Academy of DNA Genealogy, Newton, USA
2 European Patent Office, Munich, Germany
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received March 19th, 2013; revised April 20th, 2013; accepted April 27th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Anatole A. Klyosov, Giancarlo T. Tomezzoli. This is an open access article distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article attempts to merge the data of contemporary linguistics and DNA genealogy in order to de-
scribe the migrations and settlement of peoples and languages in Europe after the last Ice Age. In the new
paradigm, three important groups of players have been identified: —R1a haplogroup bearers, condition-
ally identified as Aryans. They arose around 20,000 years before the present (ybp) in central Asia and the
Altai Mountains; after their migration along the southern route, they arrived in Europe between 10,000 -
9000 ybp, bringing proto-Indo European (PIE) and Indo European (IE) languages. In 4800 ybp they mi-
grated eastward from Europe to the Russian Plane and then to India. About 3000 - 2500 ybp they mi-
grated with their IE languages from the Russian Plain back to central, western, and southern Europe, lay-
ing the genetic groundwork for peoples later called Celts, Germans, Italics, Greeks, Illyrians, and Balto-Slavs.
—E, F, G, J, I, K haplogroup bearers. The dates of their arrival in Europe (sometime before 5000 ybp)
and their migration routes remain obscure. They apparently spoke non-IE languages. —R1b haplogroup
bearers, called the Arbins. They arose about 16,000 ybp in central Asia, and migrated to Europe along a
northern route. They arrived in Europe between 4800 and 4500 ybp bringing with them several non-IE
languages. It seems that the arrival of the Aryans (R1a) in Europe was peaceful. There are no clear indica-
tions that their arrival triggered any sort of violence. However, the migration of the Arbins (R1b) was
marked by an almost complete elimination of the E1b, F, G2a, J, I1, I2, and K haplogroups from Europe.
Our analysis of current linguistic theories in the light of DNA genealogy data demonstrates that: —the
Anatolian theory is generally compatible with DNA genealogy data; —the Vasconic and Afro-asiatic
substratum theory is partially in agreement with DNA genealogy data; —the Kurgan theory and the Pa-
laeolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) appear incompatible with the history of Europe based on haplogroup
data. —the “Out of Africa” theory has questionable validity.
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